F. and S. Marriott 140 Newbegin, Hornsea, England, HU18 1PB

May 2010. Stephanie died peacefully on 19th April after a short stay in hospital. She had been suffering from acute cervical cancer. Fred will continue to run the business to the best of his ability. The web site is slowly getting under control again as he tries to take over some of Stephanie's responsibilities, and learns some of the mysteries of Dreamweaver.

Pieces An on-line look at cameras etc. by Stephanie Marriott

Eumig C3

Paillard-Bolex P2

Paillard-Bolex P3

Paillard-Bolex P4

 

May 2004 - Cine Miscellany

Kodacolor was one of the first colour processes to be used in cinematography. It was introduced in 1928, although the first patents were taken out in 1908. It was directed at the amateur market (the quality of results was not up to professional requirements) and was only availabe in 16 mm. 8 mm. had not been introduced at that time.

The process utilised a black-and-white sensitive film used with the emulsion away from the lens The film base, in front of the emulsion, was embossed with a mass of tiny lenses, the object of which were to form small images of a striped filter which was placed on the camera lens. This filter was a glass screen with three coloured stripes - red, green and blue-violet. When a picture was taken, the varying proportion of each colour reflected from the subject, passing through the glass screen, was recorded on the film underneath each of the embossed lenses, as tiny areas of stripes in groups of three, with each strip varying in density according to the colour value received in that area.

The filming process required the camera to be used at f/1.9 only, so that the striped filter worked properly. The original Kodachrome film was very slow, requiring an exposure of about a thirtieth of a second at f/1.9 in bright sunlight (this represents a film speed in modern terms of about 0.5 ISO). A later version of the film, Super Sensitive Kodacolor, could be used "outdoors in any good photographic light, and even indoors under favourable conditions." Kodak's home movie cameras then available, such as the Cine-Kodak Model BB, could be used. When the film was exposed, it was returned to Kodak for processing.

To project the film, a projector was fitted with the Kodacolor Projection Filter, which appears to be similar to the screen fitted to the camera. The lenticular image on the film is transformed into a natural colour picture on the screen, and it must have given a striking image at the time though we would find it very dull today. As with all colour processes involviing a lenticular image, the pattern intrudes, and there is substantial light loss (about 50%). Even the cheapest Kodak 16 mm. projector of the day, the Kodatoy, could be adapted for projection of Kodacolor films.

Kodacolor film was priced at £2 for a 100ft. spool, exactly twice the price of black-and-white film. The film process became obsolete when Kodak introduced Kodachrome cine film in 1935.

The Eumig C3M is one of the most common cine cameras seen on the second-hand market now. It started life as the Eumig C3, which was one of the first cameras to feature a built-in coupled exposure meter. The clockwork drive gave three filming speeds (8, 16 and 32 f.p.s.) plus single frame, and ran for 40 seconds at 16 f.p.s. (a relatively long run).It has a Schneider f/1.9 fixed focus lens. It was a popular camera and sold well, which is surprising considering the cost (about £71 11s.).

By 1959 an improved version of the C3 had been introduced. This was the Eumig C3R which included a lens turret carrying wide-angle and telephoto converter lenses which were coupled to the viewfinder. This version cost £84 17s. 3d.

The Eumig C3m was introduced in 1960. The lenses now included a focusing lens with central focusing for all three focal lengths. Filming speeds were 16, 24 and 32 f.p.s. and there was back-wind, enabling dissolves and multiple exposures to be made. The camera was sold as an outfit, with a pistol grip. The colour of the camera was changed to a distiinctive pale grey with blue trim. Accessories included a parallax correcting device and a amtte-box. The camera cost £81 7s. 6d.

The Paillard-Bolex P1 is a versatile Standard-8 camera. The body is based on the pocket cameras (B, C and D series). It has a Som Berthiot Pan-Cinor f/1.9 8 mm. to 40 mm. zoom lens (not interchangeable), reflex viewing, split-image rangefinder, and a built-in t.t.l. exposure meter. The spring drive gives seven speeds from 12 f.p.s. to 64 f.p.s. and single frame. It was an expensive camera when new - over £162 in 1962, including pistol grip and a hide carrying case.
It was not available for very long - introduced into the UK in about 1962, it was joined by the P2 the following year, then by the P3 in 1964; by 1965, the P1 and P2 have disappeared and after the introduction of Super-8 in 1965, the P3 and P4 soon disppeared as well.

The Paillard-Bolex P2 was a cheaper version of the P1, with a 9 mm. to 30 mm. f/1.9 Pan Cinor lens. In 1964, the P2 cost almost £80, but this did not include a case (over £8 extra) or a pistol grip (over £6 extra).

The Paillard-Bolex P3 is an improved version of the P1 with power zoom, superb co-incident image rangefinder, variable shutter and backwind. It cost nearly £143 in 1964.

The Paillard-Bolex P4 was a completely different camera, with a new body and mechanism, and featured automatic exposure control. It has a shorter zoom range than the P3 (though it still has the lovely rangefinder, one of the best on any camera), only three filming speeds (12, 18 and 40 f.p.s.), single frame, variable shutter and backwind. In 1965 it cost almost £110.

Part of this column has previously appeared in International Movie Making, a magazine for film-makers published by Roy Salmons, and appears with his permission.

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